Analysis: Technical requirements for the development of LED lighting fixtures to indoor lighting products

The LED lighting market has huge business opportunities and a broad development space. LED lighting applications have evolved from outdoor landscape lighting LEDs to indoor lighting applications. According to the analysis, the development of LED indoor lighting will have an exponential growth trend in the next five years. In 2011, its output value will reach tens of billions of dollars. In particular, in 2009, the European Union took the lead in implementing the plan to ban incandescent lamps, and the issue of energy conservation received much attention, which created a huge market opportunity and optimistic prospects for LED indoor lighting.

The development of high-power LED lighting depends on two elements: the chip itself; the second is the lighting technology, including heat dissipation, optics, and drive. The first is the chip. At present, the key to the development of LED chip technology lies in the substrate material and epitaxial growth technology. The base material is developed from traditional sapphire materials, silicon and silicon carbide to new materials such as zinc oxide and gallium nitride. Whether it's high-power chips for accent lighting and monolithic lighting, or low-power chips for decorative lighting and some simple auxiliary lighting, the key to technology upgrades is how to develop more efficient and stable chips. In just a few years, LEDs have achieved great breakthroughs in light efficiency with a series of technological improvements including chip structure, surface roughening and multi-quantum well structure design. Thin-film chip technology is the core technology in the production of ultra-bright LED chips, which can reduce the light output loss of each side, and can output more than 97% of the light from the front side by the reflective surface at the bottom. This not only significantly improves the light efficiency of the LED, but also creates superior convenience for the lens design.

In fact, since the development of LED lighting fixtures, people have been paying attention to its service life. If only relying on LED components with low thermal resistance is not able to build a good heat dissipation system for the fixture, it must effectively reduce the PN node to the surrounding environment. Thermal resistance can greatly reduce the temperature of the PN node of the LED, and successfully implement the goal of extending the life of the LED luminaire and increasing the actual luminous flux. Unlike conventional lamps, printed circuit boards are both the power carrier for LEDs and the heat carrier for LEDs, so the heat dissipation design of heat sinks and printed circuit boards is important. In addition, luminaire manufacturers must consider the quality, thickness and size of the heat sink material as well as the handling and connection of the heat sink interface.

In terms of optical design of LED lighting fixtures, directionality and point source are the most typical features of LEDs and the key to the optical design of luminaires compared to conventional luminaires. Through the binary optical design of the LED, the LED luminaire can achieve a better light distribution curve. Just as the light of the largest indoor lighting in the development of LED lighting fixtures needs to be very bright, high light transmittance lampshades can be used to improve light extraction efficiency. Or the application of the light guide plate technology to the luminaire, thereby changing the LED point light source to the surface light source, can not only improve the light distribution uniformity of the luminaire, but also prevent glare. It can also be used with some concentrating lenses or reflectors to highlight the concentrating effect of illuminated objects to achieve a real optical effect.

The technical challenges of high-power LED lighting, even though LEDs have performed satisfactorily in indoor accent lighting and decorative lighting applications, there are still many challenges in general lighting and ambient lighting applications, including initial cost and low color temperature. Light efficiency, color rendering index and system reliability. Cost is a relatively sensitive factor in indoor lighting, especially in home lighting applications. Despite the increasing number of LED lights and the increasing light efficiency, the problem of high prices still exists. However, when the price of the LED light source is lowered and the overall optimization of the system design, the total cost will inevitably fall.

LED luminaires improve light efficiency at low color temperatures Low color temperatures below 4,000K are often the first choice for indoor home lighting. Warm white light makes the whole environment warmer and more relaxed, while cool white light gives a clean, efficient and bright feeling, which is more suitable for office and outdoor lighting . LED lamps extend the life and improve system reliability. In general lighting applications, the overall efficiency, service life and reliability of LEDs must be optimized through system optimization. LED light source: compact, efficient, available in a variety of colors and output power. Power Conversion: Efficiently converts AC, battery, and other power supplies into a safe, low-voltage, constant-current power supply. Control and drive: Use electronic circuitry to achieve constant current drive and control of the LED. Thermal management: In order to achieve a longer service life, it is important to control the temperature of the LED node, and thermal analysis is also indispensable. Optical components: A lens, reflector, or light guide material is the optical component necessary to focus light in the target area.

With the rapid development of LED technology and the gradual improvement of LED light efficiency, the application of LED will become more and more extensive. Especially with the increasing global energy shortage, people are paying more and more attention to the development prospects of LED in the lighting market. LED will be the potential light source to replace incandescent, tungsten and fluorescent lamps. In addition, in the design of indoor lighting , LED will tend to be energy-saving, humanized and artistic.

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