1. Overview of the development of foreign urban lighting
1.1 Time history of foreign city lighting development
The development of urban lighting in foreign countries has also undergone a gradual acceleration process with continuous expansion, rich content and increasing scale. In Europe, for example, its urban lighting has gone through the following stages:
At the beginning of the 20th century, urban lighting was limited to functional lighting, and the main purpose was to satisfy the visual recognition of motor vehicle driving;
In the 1950s, de Boer first proposed that visual comfort should be added to road lighting, but until the late 1970s, urban lighting seemed to be only a derivative of traffic lighting;
In the 1980s, Caminada and Bommel first proposed systematic research on residents and walkers, and emphasized personal safety and social security;
In the 1990s, City Beautification, especially the use of urban lighting as a means to enhance the city's image movement became a trend;
By the beginning of the 21st century, the influence of urban lighting on people's emotions and interaction with life has become the focus of urban lighting. With the increasing attention of countries around the world to urban lighting, lighting planning and design as a profession has become increasingly mature, many cities abroad have carried out urban lighting overall or regional planning or strategy work. Such as Lyon, Moscow, Istanbul, Yokohama, Seoul, Singapore and other cities;
After entering the 21st century, Melbourne, Australia, Denver, Salt Lake City, St. Jersey and other cities in the United States have further developed specific development measures or implementation guidelines and guidelines for urban lighting to guide urban lighting construction.
1.2 Characteristics of North American Urban Lighting Planning
North American urban lighting planning focuses on energy and safety and involves little aesthetic considerations. It seems that it can correspond to the functionalist stage of planning development history. Lighting planning focuses on roads, parking lots, and parks, and categorizes lighting requirements. The plan places great emphasis on implementability and is supported by a sound review system.
1.3 Characteristics of European Urban Lighting Planning
European urban lighting planning has the following characteristics: The focus of planning is on â€œthingsâ€, which seeks to enhance the visual image of the city. The selection and ordering of elements, the pursuit of order and form beauty is the core content. Its theoretical focus is on formal aesthetics. It can correspond to the formalism stage in the history of planning development. For example, in Rome, the lighting plan is closely coordinated by the planner and the lighting designer, focusing on the human function and emotional needs.
1.4 Characteristics of Asian Urban Lighting Planning
The Asian lighting plan represented by Seoul has the following characteristics: The plan considers the relationship with people, and considers the perception of people as the consideration of the choice of lighting objects. The issue of implementing the safeguard level has been considered more. There are more detailed provisions in conjunction with urban construction, integration with urban management systems, fundraising, and government incentives. Carefully select the areas that give the city's characteristics to give lighting, and give control planning content to these areas.
1.5 Inspiration and Thinking
In summary, the lighting characteristics of countries around the world have special reference significance for China's lighting planning. After experiencing the function-led lighting process, the humanistic era is the core of the humanistic concept. The planning language and structure are clear and logical. It is conducive to government management through the full coverage of the planning objects. The convenient lighting classification method and the corresponding control strategy are easy to operate and easy to manage, which has a strong reference for us.
2. Problems with domestic lighting
Compared with the long history of foreign development, China's lighting planning has only gradually increased to the level of landscape lighting in the last 10 years. Therefore, there are still many shortcomings in the process of lighting and beautification and the space worth improving and upgrading.
2.1 Insufficient planning and management
The overall planning is lagging behind, there is no planning or construction of night lighting facilities in accordance with the plan, and there is a phenomenon that the city lights up in an orderly and uncontrolled manner. The night scenes of most cities lack unified planning, or the planning depth and control are insufficient. Except for some key scenic spots and scenic spots, the lighting of most buildings, neighborhoods and scenic spots is the government's call, and the owners' self-determination leads to self-issuance, which is irrelevant. Good individual works did not form a good group effect. The competition in the commercial image leads to the comparison of the brightness and color of the landscape lighting. The â€œbrightness ratioâ€ is a serious phenomenon, which brings adverse effects such as glare and light pollution to the urban night landscape planning.
2.2 Lighting plans lack uniform standards and specifications
At present, there is no national standard for night lighting in China, which makes the planning, management and design of night scenes unfounded, resulting in uncontrollable effects on landscape quality and environmental impact. Most of the existing technical specifications are limited only to lighting technology, lacking guidance and qualifications for landscapes and environments.
2.3 Blind plagiarism imitation, lack of cultural taste
The night view of urban lighting is the display of urban taste and the embodiment of urban charm, and each city has its own different historical culture, development orientation, social function and urban style. In the process of night lighting, some cities ignore the characteristics of the city itself, historical and cultural characteristics and their financial resources, blindly learn the characteristics of other cities' lighting construction, and simply imitate the failure pattern that leads to mutual similarity and â€œone thousand citiesâ€.
2.4 Quick success, neglecting lighting safety
It is understandable to pay attention to the night scene lighting during festivals or major political events. However, the city night lighting is not just for a few festivals. The festival is brightly lit and bleak afterwards. It is not the purpose of urban night lighting, and the service tenet of "people-oriented". It is against the contrary.
Some night scene lighting is very beautiful at night, but it is not beautiful in the daytime and is not in harmony with the surrounding environment, and there are security risks. Even the astronomical observations have had a significant impact.
Driven by the Ministry of Construction, the National Development and Reform Commission, and the lighting industry, China has made some progress in urban lighting planning. However, so far, China has many shortcomings in urban lighting planning. The main purpose, content, depth and format of urban lighting planning are uneven. It is planned to be a lighting manual, to categorize lighting objects, and then to give a universal guide to lighting. There is no planning design. The planning design has become a conceptual design with many renderings, few targeted designs, and poor implementation.